The Cult Of S. S. Rajamouli

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In Kerala, the place director S. S. Rajamouli was once selling RRR – his upcoming Telugu movie, a pre-independence motion drama additionally liberating as dubbed variations in Hindi, Tamil, Malayalam and Kannada – six-sheet posters had been pasted throughout Thiruvananthapuram. What was once instinctively outstanding (and comprehensible) about their design was once the position of Rajamouli’s face, smack within the centre, taking on as a lot area as the celebrities in his film – Jr. NTR, Ram Charan, Ajay Devgn and Alia Bhatt.

Rajamouli is on this slender class of “famous person administrators”, which incorporates Sanjay Leela Bhansali, Sukumar, Rajkumar Hirani, Puri Jagannadh, Karan Johar, Mani Ratnam, Rohit Shetty, Zoya Akhtar and Shankar – recent administrators whose names on posters are all the time a dimension larger than the norm – reflecting their pull, their achieve. In that recognize – with round 5.7 million fans on Twitter and over one million fans on Instagram – Rajamouli has established himself as no longer simply essentially the most a success Indian movie director but in addition controlled to grasp the type of superstardom standing this is reserved just for main actors. No longer a unmarried flop zits his filmography, which works all of the as far back as 2001.

He established himself together with his early slate of releases within the Telugu and Tamil heartlands (the latter via dubs), but it surely took the Baahubali franchise for the North to believe his artwork severely and with out irony. Earlier than Baahubali: The Starting, Hindi-speaking belts simplest accessed his motion pictures in roundabout tactics – Vikramarkudu (2006) remade as Rowdy Rathore (2012), Maryada Ramanna (2010) spun into Son of Sardaar (2012), and Magadheera (2009) being suspiciously very similar to Raabta (2017). Hindi dubs of his motion pictures had been lazily circulated on tv via satellite tv for pc networks – Aaj Ka Mujrim (2001), Yamraaj Ek Faulad (2003), Aar Paar: The Judgement Day (2004), and Hukumat Ki Jung (2005). Each and every of those motion pictures may also be discovered on YouTube, with some raking in over 30 million perspectives.

This reputation is a part of a brand new surge the place South Indian “masala” motion pictures, particularly Telugu and Tamil, are dubbed in Hindi and Bhojpuri and uploaded to viral summits – a reputation of the disaffection from the hot tilt of Bollywood in opposition to realism, from “unmarried display” to “multiplex” motion pictures.

With Eega (2012) – Rajamouli’s maximum audacious stab – the place the hero, Nani, is a CGI fly for many of the movie, Rajamouli attempted one thing new. The movie was once dubbed in Hindi and launched theatrically a couple of months after Eega’s free up, as Makkhi. A distinct music was once even added with the housefly mimicking Ajay Devgn, Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Hrithik Roshan. Whilst Makkhi didn’t do smartly commercially, accumulating a bit underneath 3 crores in its first week, its satellite tv for pc rights had been offered at a whopping 8 crores to Celebrity Gold, an unparalleled quantity for a Hindi dub. (Later, with Baahubali 2: The Conclusion, Rajamouli would promote the satellite tv for pc rights for 51 crores to Sony TV, every other document for a Hindi dub, 2nd simplest to Shankar’s 2.0.)

However awe is a labour-intensive manufacturing. Within the context of Rajamouli, his pan-Indian phenomenon that roared via India can additionally be understood as a sparsely built, shrewdly deliberate budgetary requirement. He knew that to theatrically provide a movie dubbed in Hindi, you additionally want an ecosystem of reinforce with established tentacles. So, for the Baahubali franchise, with the assistance of actor-producer Rana Daggubati, who starred in Baahubali because the antagonist, he enlisted Karan Johar to offer his film and Anil Thadani to distribute it. Johar promoted it because the “largest movie made in India”, and the messaging caught. Rajamouli had discovered “the lacking hyperlink”.

Baahubali: The Starting took over 500 days to shoot, and this isn’t together with the pre- and post-production, which took over a yr each and every. One of the vital fight sequences rounded up greater than 2,000 junior artistes. The VFX, too, got here to existence after coping with over 17 studios throughout India, China, and South Korea. Actor Prabhas gave Rajamouli 5 years – no longer choosing up some other venture all over that point, rising and keeping up his hair, beard, and muscle groups. RRR, for instance, had the cheap of over 400 crores, making it probably the most dear Indian motion pictures ever made. Whilst selling it in Kerala, they invited Tovino Thomas as the manager visitor, in Chennai, Udhayanidhi Stalin and Sivakarthikeyan, and in Mumbai, Salman Khan – construction webbed associations of stardom throughout India. The more than one, simultaneous free up in more than a few languages was once, thus, vital, for as Rajamouli claims, “It’s not possible to hide Baahubali’s prices with one language free up.”

Made on a complete funds of over 450 crores, each and every Baahubali movie was once regarded as the costliest of its time, with each atmosphere benchmarks on the box-office. The full selection of the primary movie was once over 600 crores, and the second one remodeled a 1000 crores international inside 10 days of its free up – an unbroken document that no Hindi film has been in a position to wrest since. Baahubali 2: The Conclusion become the best grossing movie in India, and the second one best grossing movie international, edged over via the Aamir Khan-starrer Dangal (2016), which had a dream run in China. The standard ritual fanfare preceded the screenings: milk poured over towering cutouts as regardless that invoking a Hindu god; fireworks bursting, with enthusiasts having taken permission upfront for a half-day at paintings in order that they may catch ringside seats to the spectacle of a primary day, first display.

In 2017, Chandrababu Naidu, former leader minister of Andhra Pradesh, invited Rajamouli to design the facade of the proposed legislative meeting in Amaravati – the capital town he was once carving out after the former capital Hyderabad’s border shape-shifted into Telangana. Within the preliminary years of this venture, when Naidu was once garnering sufficient reinforce, he stored reminiscent of the traditional Buddhist namesake website that was once house to the Satavahana kingdom. It’s to be famous that whilst Rajamouli isn’t the manufacturing clothier, it’s his guidance imaginative and prescient that Naidu sought after, along with his famous person price, for round then unfavorable information in regards to the perpetually unfinished Amaravati venture was once denting his political possibilities.

Rajamouli’s contribution, as the one that additionally got here up with the fictitious town of Mahishmati, was once so as to add oomph to city making plans with mythic grandeur. Such is his popularity – a person who narratively, architecturally dabbles in grand notions of mythic pasts (again within the day, Rajamouli extensively utilized to direct ads for the Naidu’s Telugu Desam Celebration). All of the Baahubali set has been retained for vacationers to drop via the 2000-acre Ramoji Movie Town in Hyderabad, one of the vital biggest studio complexes on this planet, for tickets that vary from Rupees 1150-2350.

There may be without a doubt surely in regards to the Indian urge for food for mythology – each previous and provide – and Rajamouli faucets into each. For instance, he’s going to lasso Nagarjuna right into a dance cameo in Magadheera, which stars his son Ram Charan, realizing absolutely smartly that it’s going to make the target audience hurl cash on the display (it did). It’s virtually as though he has get right of entry to to the heartbeat issues of target audience pleasure.


Maximum of Rajamouli’s motion pictures emerge from tales his father, the startlingly productive screenplay creator Okay. V. Vijayendra Prasad, narrated to him over time, reminiscent of an oral custom of storytelling that he used because the overarching body in Eega. The plot issues are simply describable, the surprise may also be heard up to noticed, recounted as simply as visualised. Unsurprisingly, he notes Amar Chitra Katha as a touchstone, his father introducing him to those comics within the the town library in Kovvur. Stone-clad concepts of fine as opposed to evil that permeate his motion pictures come from the comics, that have simply over 400 editions, in upwards of 20 languages, and feature offered over 100 million copies. Those tales are infrequently in regards to the reform of evil, versus the destruction of it – via humiliation, adopted via loss of life. Within the Amar Chitra Katha comics, we have now get right of entry to to each a personality’s voice and internal turmoil via speech and idea bubbles, respectively. There’s no area for ambiguity – no cracks which may be full of assumptions and interpretations.

Rajamouli is a self-confessed “film-freak”, and his transition from spectator to spectacle-maker was once smartly oiled. His cousin M. M. Keeravani was once a track director, and he, at the side of his father, would grow to be a staple function of his filmography. Rajamouli used to provide the narration of his father’s scripts to different administrators, and seeing the overall minimize would all the time depart him disillusioned and short of. With the will to make motion pictures so inextricably tied to his sadness with what he was once seeing, the directorial seed of ambition and edge was once sown.

What started as promoting gigs, directing social message and political ads underneath the mentorship of the prolific Telugu director Okay. Raghavendra Rao, changed into a chance to direct the circle of relatives drama Shanti Nivasam, a TV serial, and later, his debut function movie, Pupil No. 1 (2001), starring Jr. NTR, marking his first, and an excessively a success collaboration with the actor. The good fortune of that movie was once attributed to Raghavendra Rao’s darsakatva paryavekshana, his directorial supervision, and his 2nd movie Simhadri’s (2003) good fortune was once attributed to his lead actor Jr. NTR’s swelling fan base. However by the point his 3rd movie, Sye (2004), had emerged a good fortune, the decision was once transparent – right here was once a director who would wring industrial good fortune out of a movie, growing visually ingenious imagery that was once preoccupied with muscularity whilst bringing an consideration to method that was once infrequently noticed till then. Magadheera (2009), for instance, would grow to be the primary Telugu movie to checklist a “visible results manufacturer” in its credit.

Rajamouli’s characters really feel and categorical feelings with such particular fullness that there is not any want, put out of your mind area, for subtext or subtlety. As movie critic Baradwaj Rangan writes, “He doesn’t condescend to the [masala] style. He treats it with recognize, integrity.” The muscle groups that prop the attention, throat thrumming, noses flaring – the entirety is bodily, noticed, expressible, and thus, expressed. On just right actors, this will really feel consummate, on dangerous actors it might probably really feel contrived. His filmography is suffering from each.

Maryada Ramanna

A phrase that best possible describes his craft is outrance – the final frontier of risk, the extremity of exaggeration. Each the bodily common sense and emotional pitch of his motion pictures exist inside a revved-up stratosphere of their very own. That is how he had described  the attract of his movie Vikramarkudu, an outline that passes the litmus take a look at pulling any film from his filmography: “To ensure that the motion to click on, we will have to have a robust basis of emotion. You probably have motion and emotion at the display, you wish to have to chill down the target audience a bit of with great leisure.” Thus, buffooning humour is a gradual presence as a comic book buffer in his motion pictures, even the austere ones. It’s unsurprising, then, that after the American band The Black Eyed Peas had been in search of “out-of-this-world, exaggerated … unapologetic and self-ironic… motion sequences” from Indian motion pictures to sew in combination right into a deep-fake track video, they might land on the doorstep of Rajamouli’s filmography. A scene from Maryada Ramanna (2010), the place a bicycle’s rogue activate a honking highway ends up in an orgy of flying vehicles and flung vans, was once used within the track video for Motion.

With Baahubali, on the other hand, his title become synonymous with a visual tilt within the figuring out of “what works” with lately’s pan-Indian theatre target audience. Echoes of Baahubali may also be noticed throughout motion pictures: the two-part free up of Pushpa (2021); the bull battle collection in Kalank (2019); the imagery of a mom retaining directly to a kid as she takes the throne in Manikarnika (2019); the statue coronation in Thugs Of Hindostan (2018); Chiranjeevi mentioning it because the shoulder over which Sye Raa Narasimha Reddy (2019) stands; and an upcoming slate together with The Immortal Ashwatthama, Adipurush (2023) and The Incarnation. Netflix has been running on a Baahubali spin-off for a couple of years now. Karan Johar even despatched his director, Ayan Mukerji, who was once glacially sculpting Brahmastra (in the end set for a September free up), to shadow Rajamouli and be told the craft of scale, the trade of awe.

To experience awe then, and simply that, is Rajamouli’s reward to celluloid.

However a excursion via his motion pictures makes one wonder whether his preoccupation with awe comes on the expense of attractiveness. Whilst, without a doubt visually bold and putting, there’s a missing sense of aesthetics.

Rama Rajamouli, Rajamouli’s spouse – who additionally types him – a standard gown clothier for his motion pictures, teamed up with Prashanti Tipirneni for the Baahubali motion pictures. Vivid, deep colors with gold borders and puff-blouses had been used, supposed to symbolise richness, however silk as a texture can glance garish underneath the knocking down floodlights his movie is regularly bathed in. Just right gown design isn’t an act of isolation, increased to attractiveness with the assistance of the digital camera that gazes upon it, lighting fixtures it delicately, and the manufacturing design that permits for its attractiveness to emerge. In a similar way, when clothes flutters, like Tamannaah’s white fabric within the music Dhivara, it looks as if programmed pixels and no longer textiles.

In Maryada Ramanna (2010), when an individual is being knifed, the display turns this unsightly coloration of grey-green, like an X-ray, to connote dramatic depth — as though a knife via a frame wasn’t transparent sufficient. The abnormal digital camera angles, the smoke-machine romantic songs, the gaudy tutti-frutti colors on display. Every so often it sort of feels like he’s retaining directly to older tactics of telling more recent tales, caught uneasily between the 2. It explains his attract, for his marriage of generation of the longer term with feelings of the previous is noticed because the cultural bridge via an target audience which can’t and, most likely, does no longer need to differentiate between scale and attractiveness. An over-reliance on generation has crippled the emergence of attractiveness. Every so often, it seems like there is not any generation complex sufficient to deliver Rajamouli’s imaginative and prescient to the display.


Rajamouli has regularly cited Okay. Raghavendra Rao as his mentor — the fount of his cinema — who no longer simplest gave him his ruin but in addition a cinematic language to additional tinker with. Rao’s motion pictures, which introduced actors like Sridevi and Jayasudha into steep good fortune — have simply as steadily been criticised for his or her midriff-baring heroines, a literal roughly navel-gazing. Actress Taapsee Pannu, in an interview, joked, “[K. Raghavendra Rao)] is understood to turn the sensuality of a girl via appearing the midriff and throwing end result and plants [at it]. So it was once his one hundred and fifth film, with me… They threw a coconut at me! I don’t know what’s sensuous a few coconut hitting my midriff.” This it sounds as if harmless jab on the director didn’t fly smartly with the enthusiasts, who rumbled, not able to tell apart their passionate defence of Rao from trolling, questioning if Pannu, who had migrated North, had bought the airs of stardom. Pannu apologised.

This fixation at the fair-skinned heroine’s navel cascades into Rajamouli’s motion pictures, from Shriya Saran in Chatrapathi to Anushka Shetty in Vikramarkudu to Tamannah in Baahubali: The Starting. The deeply uncomfortable scene in Baahubali: The Starting the place Prabhas’ personality provides Avantika, Tamannaah’s personality, a “makeover” via disrobing her, rubbing the smelly colors of berries to dye her lips, stripping, teasing and touching her with out her consent or convenience, was once pulled up via critics and the Twitterati. Some even went so far as calling it “the rape of Avantika”.

Baahubali – The Starting

At the one hand we should recognise that Rajamouli minimize his tooth making motion pictures in an trade that can’t distinguish female subservience from female illustration, requiring it to be thumbed underneath male want. However at the different, for a director who, in his motion pictures, has given a bicycle dialogues, who gave a fly a life-like disposition and the word “human defend” essentially the most literal, aerodynamic incarnation, is it an excessive amount of to invite for a brand new manner of having a look at girls? At males? A much less repulsive language of want? Or does this betray a sinking convenience with a syntax inherited from no longer simply Okay. Raghavendra Rao but in addition the masculine style of wars and Westerns that Rajamouli regularly cites as influences — Braveheart (1995),  The Final Of The Mohicans (1992), The Just right, The Unhealthy And The Unsightly (1966), Terminator 2 (1991), and The Indiana Jones sequence?

For all this, Baahubali: The Conclusion, his final movie, gave femininity no longer simply grace, however feisty decision – ahankaram as alankaram, conceitedness as attractiveness. Some, in an sudden jolt of pleasure or surprise, even referred to as it a “feminist film”. In step with a paper within the Global Magazine of Inventive Analysis Ideas, it “[portrayed] girls as similarly knowledgeable about their rights, possible choices and autonomy as males”. The midriff was once gleefully lacking. The cash nonetheless got here in.

Take the oversized machismo of his male leads. This is a thread connecting all his motion pictures, and when blended with the heady melodrama of mythology, produces the muscular Hindu hero. Within the context of comics now reimagining the gods of the Hindu pantheon with vast, muscular shoulders and etched, minimize abs, Rajamouli’s motion heroes look like each a saviour and an overcorrection, the 56-inch chest that, in its exaggerated claims, betrays each an lack of confidence and a promise.

Then, there’s the language and stable ethical compass borrowed from Amar Chitra Katha that Rajamouli effectively leverages, like using “Kshatriya Dharma” in his motion pictures as a decision to motion, as an ethical threshold. Right here “Kshatriya” is used as an adjective denoting a character, and no longer the noun that it’s – describing a being shaped in a locked, deterministic, hierarchical society. To start with of Baahubali, we see the folks of Mahishmati being whipped for non-payment of taxes. Has caste been changed via magnificence as a handy class of persecution, then?

It isn’t unsurprising that the film doesn’t delve into and even trace on the violence of caste, for this international is insular to that roughly critique. (The nearest can be Baahubali refusing to sacrifice an animal, a convention whose violence he doesn’t in finding materially or spiritually helpful.) It could be anachronistic, to not point out narratively abnormal, to all at once burst illuminations of caste violence into Rajamouli’s neat ethical binaries of fine Kshatriya as opposed to dangerous Kshatriya. He has simply held directly to the assumptions from the sector of Amar Chitra Katha as fact and fastened his ethical dramas over that sticky terrain.

This factor turns into difficult when the insular international of Baahubali is noticed as a petri dish for director Rajamouli’s personal reviews. A 2012 Fb publish via Rajamouli was once pulled up, the place he boldly (and incorrectly) notes that caste isn’t about one’s delivery however one’s way of life. So now, in between being concerned in regards to the maker’s ideological make-up and the viewer’s consciousness of caste violence and their skill to be swayed via what they see, what will get left out is what mediates the 2 — the film itself. Unexpectedly, dialogues prevent changing into invites to cinematic give up, however as an alternative grow to be proof in arguments. Slowly, the magic of his international falls aside. However this additional will get difficult, when noticed along Rajamouli’s admissions of atheism. For him, faith, like caste, is a classy selection that will get its power from drama.

It’s the very factor that makes his motion pictures “pan-Indian” – the evenly sexualised recasting of an excellent Indian previous with fair-skinned girls and muscular males, exaggerated expressions, grunting braveness, the place caste is shorn off its violent enchantment, and the unsteady politics is distracted via logic-gutting visuals of awe — that has invited grievance.

A definite uneasiness with the theory of the “different” and the way it’s reckoned with, is every other factor that rankles.

Take the Kalakeyas, the villains of the primary Baahubali movie – brutes who will rape each lady and slit each kid’s throat from the vanquished lands, who discuss in their very own un-subtitled language, Kilikki, and whose grammar, vocabulary and syntax was once created via lyricist Madhan Karky. Their rapacious villainy is established imagery first – the black powder they lather themselves in, an unsurprising connection to Africans, for Kilikki comprises the press of the tongue, additionally a function of African Khoisan languages. In different places Karky notes how he was once impressed via Tamil whilst he was once wary to notice that “the usage of any identified or present language might be able to harm the audio system”. Other people had been keen to name this a violent depiction of tribals, however right here was once a round-about common sense to this: the phrase “tribals” or “adivasis” was once by no means used; the Kalakeyas got traits utilized in bigoted depictions of tribals and so, the argument is going, they should be tribals.

From every other standpoint, this depiction of the Kalakeyas will also be noticed as Brahmanical slandering, in the similar manner the Amar Chitra Katha comics painted the Rakshasa as an uncivilised tormentor in their way of life, one who we fused into our ethical binary. The Marathi creator Ushakiran Atram, looking to destabilise this perception, writes, “The rakshasas had been Adivasis making an attempt to give protection to their tradition and way of living from the invading Aryans.”

In his studying, Ravana, a determine of contempt and villainy in Sanskritic readings of the Ramayana, is thought of as one of the vital nice Gond kings, with temples devoted to him. So what we see as hero-villain dichotomy may also be, when regarded askance, noticed as Brahamnical contempt. So, whilst the “just right tribals”, those at first with Warli art work on their partitions, embody the Hindu iconography of the Shiva lingam, the “dangerous tribals”, the godless marauding Kalakeyas are given the nihilistic violence of the trishul as an alternative. Both manner, they’re subsumed underneath Hindu iconography.


Are we studying an excessive amount of right into a filmography that explicitly rejects idea? Possibly. For Rajamouli’s uncritical leisure additionally calls for an uncritical reception. Politics in his motion pictures turns into a classy selection – the place to query its intent is to mistake and misinterpret it, which eludes common sense, dialectic, grievance, doubt, subtext, and paratext. Those motion pictures don’t call for articulation however affectation.

The similar discomforting studying may also be prolonged to Muslims. There’s a megalomaniacal Akbar-like determine in Magadheera – regardless that in fact he isn’t referred to as “Akbar”, just like the Kalakeyas aren’t referred to as “tribals” – in addition to Prabhas’ kohl-rimmed, fez and keffiyeh-tipped glance to slot in a few of the “lawless… bandits, thieves, murderers” from Baahubali: The Starting. Take the scene in Maryada Ramanna the place we first see a mosque – abandoned, amidst desolate tract, naked boned autumnal timber, a barren website of doable violence within the narrative – to then straight away be served with photographs of polished marble and sandstone gopurams amidst verdant, flourishing timber. Unexpectedly, this want to turn various landscapes, the barren and the pregnant, the colourless and the rainbow insurrection, will get mapped onto faith with an uneasy simplicity that doesn’t name an excessive amount of consideration to itself.

This isn’t to mention his motion pictures are Islamophobic, for that may be a knocking down, reactionary studying and appear to indicate that the makers had an unbending ideological backbone. The important thing to figuring out the Rajamouli filmography is to grasp what’s absent. The ideological backbone doesn’t exist, for what we believe a political place, a Brahmanical international view, seems like air to those motion pictures, a herbal, incontestable factor.

Rajamouli’s motion pictures have led teachers like Anu Thapa to name those apparently inane spectacles as “serving the technophilic avatar of Hindutva 2.0”. Such characterisations really feel like warnings, burnishing our uncritical embody of joy-giving motion pictures with a skinny polish of doubt. That we will be able to love the very fabricated from the issues we hate. That generation, awe, creativeness and fervour can masks the stench of ideology, on the other hand faint – for us or even for them, the artistes.

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